By A A Slavnov; L D Faddeev
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The effect consists of the emission of electrons from the surface of a solid when electromagnetic radiation is incident upon it (Hughes and DuBridge 1932, DuBridge 1933, Holton 2000). 4; the Millikan experiment quoted therein should not be confused with the measurement of the electron charge qe = −|qe |, also due to Millikan). (i) The electrons are emitted only if the frequency of the incoming radiation is greater than a certain value ν0 , which is a peculiar property of the metal used in the experiment, and is called the photoelectric threshold.
6 Dynamic equilibrium of the radiation field While spontaneous emission was known for a long time in atomic physics, it was Einstein who emphasized its role and derived the Planck distribution of spectral energy on a dynamic basis as we have just seen, in contrast with the original Planck derivation. Einstein 1) . But considered a two-level atom and monochromatic radiation of frequency ν = (E2 −E h in actual fact there are many frequencies, many species of atoms and many energy levels (and populations of these levels).
It was found that often a line may be associated with two others by the relation ν = ν1 + ν2 . More specifically, if lines are parametrized with two numbers, say νi, j , then νi,k = νi, j + νj,k . This rule was known as the Ritz combination principle. To account for the emission and absorption spectra, Bohr made some assumptions (Bohr 1913) that, as in the case of Einstein’s hypothesis, disagree with classical physics, which was unable to account for the discreteness properties of the spectra. The basic idea was that privileged orbits for atoms exist that are stable.
Gauge fields, introduction to quantum theory by A A Slavnov; L D Faddeev